Ayurveda is a Sanskrit term, made up of the words "Ayu" and “Veda"  "Ayu" means life and "Veda" means knowledge or science. The term "Ayurveda" thus means "knowledge of life" or "science of life".  

In Ayurveda Ayu (life) can be classified as:

1. Sukha Ayu   : The ayu that leads a healthy life. Person has good health.

2. Dukha Ayu   : The ayu that live a diseased life. The person suffers with some disease all his life.

3. Hita Ayu        : The ayu that lives life by serving the society.

4. Ahita Ayu     : The ayu that live life in destructive activities.


Ayurveda is the science of life that not only deals with Sukha Ayu, Dukha Ayu, Hita Ayu, Ahita Ayu but also deals with the ways and means to achieve health the path that leads to disease.


Ayurveda is the most ancient and traditional system of medicine native to India. The earliest literature on Indian medical practice appeared during the Vedic period in India, i.e., in the mid-second millennium BCE. The Susruta Saṃhita and the Charaka Saṃhita, encyclopedias of surgery & medicine compiled from various sources from the mid-first millennium BCE to about 500 CE, are among the foundational works of Ayurveda. Over the following centuries, The Ayurvedic system of medication is based on many centuries of experience in medical practice handed down through generations.


Ayurvedic practitioners developed a number of medicinal preparations and surgical procedures for the treatment of various ailments.


The concept of Panchmahabhutas; the five elements

According to Ayurveda, all matter to be composed of five basic elements known as the Panchmahabhutas;

1. Akash (Sky), 

2. Vayu (Air), 

3. Agni or Tej (Fire), 

4. Jala (Water), 

5. Pruthvi (Earth)

These elements interact and exists in combination, in which one or more elements dominate. The human body is composed of derivatives of these five basic elements, This nature is determined by the vital balance of the Doshas (Saririk/physical & manasik/psychic/mental), Dhatus (tissues) and Malas (waste product) which are the roots (cause, chief constituents, supports), of the body always (throughout the span of life). The Panchmahabhutas therefore serve as the foundation of all diagnosis and treatment modalities in Ayurveda. 


The Doshas or Tridoshas

"Doshas"- Doshas are of two kinds-


A. Saririk doshas/physical energies

B. Manasik doshas/psychic/mental energies


‘‘Saririk Doshas (Physical energies)’’: Saririk Doshas are three in number i.e.-Vata (wind/spirit/air), Pitta (bile) and Kapha (phlegm). When any of the doshas accumulate in the body beyond the desirable limit, the body loses its balance. Every individual has a distinct balance, and our health and well-being depend on getting a right balance of the three doshas (‘‘tridoshas"). Ayurveda suggests specific lifestyle and nutritional guidelines to help individuals reduce the excess dosha.


‘‘Manas Doshas (psychic energies)’’: Mano dosas are two in number i.e.-Rajas & Tamas are known as mansik vikar. Satva is known as mansik guna or quality.

The Dhatus or Saptdhatus

‘‘Dhatus (tissues)’’: Dhatus are seven in number i.e.- 

1. Rasa (Chyle or plasma),

2. Rakta (Blood),

3. Mamsa (Muscle), 

4. Meda (Fat),

5. Asthi (Bone), 

6. Majja (Marrow), and 

7. Sukra (Semen-the reproductive tissue in the males and its counterpart artava (ovum) in Females.

Reproductive tissues are the main physical constituents that maintain physical condition of human body which held to be the seven primary constituent elements of the body.

Ojas the essence of the dhatus is counted as the eight dhatu.


In addition, there are some Updhatus (secondary tissues) such as-

Lasika (lymph), 

Stanya (breast milk), 

Kandara (tendons), 

Sira Dhamni (veins and arteries),

Vasa (muscle fat), 

Twak (skin), 

Snayu (nerves) 

Tarunasthi (cartilages) etc.


The malas or waste products

‘‘Mala’s (waste product)’’: 

Purish (feaces), 

Mutra (urine), 

sweda (sweat), 

Khamala (dhatu mala-waste products of tissues- excreations of the eyes, nose, ears, of the small & big channels, kasha-roma (hair on the head and body)’ nakha (nails) etc.


Ayurved prayojan (aims and objectives of Ayurveda):

Aims and objectives of Ayurveda have been divided into two aspects namely:


Swasthasya Swathya Rakshanam, Aturasya Vikar Prashamanam


1. Maintain the health of healthy person.

2. Cure the disease of diseased person.


These two aspects reflect the unique approach of Ayurveda. To lead a good life health is priority. Through Ayurvedic concepts it is necessary to maintain health and in case of a diseased state gaining back the normal health. 

A healthy person, as defined in Sushrut Samhita, one of the primary works on Ayurveda, is ‘‘he whose doshas are in balance, appetite is good, all tissues of the body and all natural urges are functioning properly, and whose mind, body and spirit are cheerful.”


Ashtanga Ayurveda

A classification which divides in eight branches that became canonical for Ayurveda in which treatment of diseases are describe namely-

1. Kaya-Chikitsa (Medicine/Therapeutics)

2. Kaumarabhrtya/Bal Rog (Pediatrics) 

3. Salya Chikitsa (Surgery)

4. Salakya tantra (Eye and ENT)

5. Bhuta Vidhya (psychiatry)

6. Agadtantra (Toxicology)

7. Rasayan (Prevention of diseases and improving immunity and rejuvenation)

8. Vajikaran (Aphrodisiacs and improving health of progeny)

In Hindu mythology, the origin of ayurvedic medicine is attributed to Dhanvantari, the physician of the gods. Shusrut Sutra 1/6 - 7 Pg. 30 (Ayurveda Hitopadesha)

Ayurveda, Upaveda of Atharvaveda, written by Brahma is named as the Brahma Samhita. It envelops in itself one million shlokas in form of rhymes written in one thousand chapters.

Ayurveda was rewritten in the in eight parts popularly known as the ashtang ayurveda due to the decline in the intellectual level and life span of human beings.

1. Kaya Chikitsa (Medicine/Therapeutics):

Shloka : Shusrut Su. 1/8

It is the branch of Ayurved that deals with internal medicine. The treatment involved is called


"Kayachikitsa", where Kaya means "Agni "and Chikitsa means "treatment".

It is noteable that the entire Ayurvedic therapeutics is based on this concept of Agni. The concept of Kaya (Agni) is unique and is responsible for bio- transformation.

As it is known that energy can neither be created nor it can be destroyed. In human body Kaya provides the necessary energy for all bodily activities. As energy can be changed from one form to another the living body derive energy from the food eaten and breathing air. Biological Kaya transforms this energy to the energy, which is utilized by our cells.

In simple words, the vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats etc. eaten are bio transformed by this Kaya to the bodily substances. As long as Kaya is proper all the activities in body are carried out smoothly. Any disturbance in Kaya causes imbalance in the homeostasis (equilibrium) and disturbs physiology which is nothing but the disease. In ayurveda therapeutics devotes to correction and maintenance of biological Kaya through the means of Mantra, Mani and Aushadhi.

Keeping in mind all the benefits of ayurveda it must be kept in mind that anything and everything that is herbal cannot naturally become Ayurvedic medicine, but only the therapy which considers the above mentioned concepts of Ayurved qualifies to be called as Ayurvedic medicine.

2. Kaumarabhrtya/Bal Rog (Pediatrics)


It is the branch of ayurveda that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to preconception, childbearing (Pregnancy), childbirth (delivery) and diseases of children.


3. Salya Chikitsa (Surgery)

Shloka: Ref Shusrut Su. 7/4

The word shalya refers to the things that cause discomfort to the body and the mind. Shalya is of two types, namely: shaarir (within the body) and agantuj (outisde the body). 
The shalya present inside the body is considered as the Shaarir Shalya.. Example: Unhealthy teeth, Hair, Nails, imbalanced doshas, dhatus and mala, abscess, tumor, fetus etc. Whereas agantuj are the shalya presen toutside the body. Example: Thorns, Stone pieces, iron pieces, dust particles, worry etc.


4. Salakya tantra (Eye and ENT)

Shloka: Shusru. 1/8

It deals with the means such as Yantra (Tools), Shastra (Instruments), Kshara (Alkalies) and Agni (Fire) to remove the shalya in the body by different methods.

Shloka: Ref Shusrut Su. 1/8

It deals with the diseases related to Nose, Ear, Throat and Eyes. Inother words it deals with the disease of Urdhva Jatru region i.e diseases in the organs above the Clavicle (Jatru) and their treatment.


5. Bhuta Vidhya (psychiatry)

it is the branch of Ayurveda that deals with diseases acquired or inherited from apparently unknown causes. In modern terminology it can be considered as idiopathic diseases in which the exact cause of disease is unknown. 

According to Ayurveda, diseases are caused by affliction due to Deva, Asura, Gandharva, Yaksha, Rakshasa, Pitara, Pishacha, Naga and other bad demons or evils. The exact patho- physiology of these disorders is to be extensively researched.


6. Rasayan (Prevention of diseases and improving immunity and rejuvenation)

It is the branch of ayurveda that deals with various aspects of preventive health care. Without rasayana it is possible to gain neither oratory nor the desirable aura. It includes longevity, improved memory, health, youthfulness, glow, complexion, generosity, and strength of body and senses. Rasayana improves the metabolic activities and results in best possible bio- transformation leading to health.


7. Vajikaran (Aphrodisiacs and improving health of progeny) 

It is the branch of ayurveda that deals with the sexual aspects. It includes medications for diseases related with reproduction namely spermatogenesis, aphrodisiacs etc.


8. Agadtantra (Toxicology) 

It is the branch of Ayurveda which cure the toxic effects in the human body.




History of Ayurveda:


The mantra Om mani padme hum written on rocks. Chanting mantras has been a feature of ayurveda since the Atharvaveda, the vedic spiritual text, was compiled.
One view of the early history of ayurveda asserts that around 1500 BC, ayurveda's fundamental and applied principles got organized and enunciated. In this historical construction, Ayurveda traces its origins to the Vedas, Atharvaveda in particular, and is connected to Hindu religion. Atharvaveda (one of the four most ancient books of Indian knowledge, wisdom and culture) contains 114 hymns or formulations for the treatment of diseases. Ayurveda originated in and developed from these hymns. In this sense, ayurveda is considered by some to have divine origin. Indian medicine has a long history, and is one of the oldest organised systems of medicine. Its earliest concepts are set out in the sacred writings called the Vedas, especially in the metrical passages of the Atharvaveda, which may possibly date as far back as the 2nd millennium BC. According to a later writer, the system of medicine was received by Dhanvantari from Brahma, and Dhanvantari was deified as the god of medicine. In later times his status was gradually reduced, until he was credited with having been an earthly king named Divodasa.


Cataract in human eye – magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Cataract surgery was known to the physician Sushruta in the early centuries of the first millennium AD, and was performed with a special tool called the jabamukhi salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the obstructing phlegm and push it out of the field of vision. The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged. 
Underwood & Rhodes (2008) hold that this early phase of traditional Indian medicine identified "fever (takman), cough, consumption, diarrhea, dropsy, abscesses, seizures, tumours, and skin diseases (including leprosy)". Treatment of complex ailments, including angina pectoris, diabetes, hypertension, and stones, also ensued during this period. Plastic surgery, couching (a form of cataract surgery), puncturing to release fluids in the abdomen, extraction of foreign elements, treatment of anal fistulas, treating fractures, amputations, cesarean sections, and stitching of wounds were known. The use of herbs and surgical instruments became widespread. The Charaka Samhita text is arguably the principal classic reference. It gives emphasis to the triune nature of each person: body care, mental regulation, and spiritual/consciousness refinement.
Other early works of ayurveda include the Charaka Samhita, attributed to Charaka. The earliest surviving excavated written material which contains references to the works of Sushruta is the Bower Manuscript, dated to the 6th century AD. The Bower manuscript is of special interest to historians due to the presence of Indian medicine and its concepts in Central Asia. Vagbhata, the son of a senior doctor by the name of Simhagupta. also compiled his works on traditional medicine. Early ayurveda had a school of physicians and a school of surgeons. Tradition holds that the text Agnivesh tantra, written by the sage Agnivesh, a student of the sage Bharadwaja, influenced the writings of ayurveda. 
The Chinese pilgrim Fa Hsien (ca. 337–422 AD) wrote about the health care system of the Gupta empire (320–550) and described the institutional approach of Indian medicine, also visible in the works of Charaka, who mentions a clinic and how it should be equipped. Madhava (fl. 700), Sarngadhara (fl. 1300), and Bhavamisra (fl. 1500) compiled works on Indian medicine. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka were translated into theArabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate (ca. 750). These Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy, the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta. 
British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasty being performed by native methods. Reports on Indian rhinoplasty were published in the Gentleman's Magazine in 1794. Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods. Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the western world in 1815. Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhitawere further modified in the Western World.


Ayurveda in Vedic Era:

In Hindu mythology many stories, incidents reveal that the sainya chikitsa (treatment of the army) or chikitsa (treatment) was in a developed state in the Vedic era. As described in Rig- Veda many examples unveil that the doctors of Gods, Aswini kumars performed many breathtaking surgeries and they were experts in body implants.

The examples of implantation of the steel legs in place of broken legs of Vishakha, the daughter of King Ravel, implantation of a horse's mouth in place of Dadhichi's head and again replace it with original makes it evident that Sainya Chikitsa was very progressed.

Atharva Veda, Kaushiksutra, Ramayana, Mahabharata and Harshabharit etc. novels have the description about the well- equipped doctor in the army quarters. .

In Arthashastra (Economy) by Kautilya, there is a discussion about the doctors who possessed Yantra (equipments), Shastra (Tools), Agada (poison), Aushadha (Medicine), Sneha (love), Vastra (clothes), Parichaarak / Parichaarika (Nurses), to cure and heal. .


Pashu Chikitsa (Animal's Treatment):

Thousands of years ago, rules and regulations mattered to people and governed their way of life. Life in the Vedic era was a natural life of the people who gave priority to Yadnya that only married people were allowed to perform.

Animal hunting was allowed for purpose of Yadnya and the eating meat after the Yadnya was thought as holy deed. The animals that were having diseases were not eligible for Yadnya. Only after treatment when they are fully cured could be taken for Yadnya.

It was observed that animals treat themselves when diseased and ayurveda was classified in three branches:

1. Manava Ayurveda

2. Pashu Ayurveda

3. Vruksh ayurveda

In the Vedic era significant animals were used in Yadnya and army like the elephant, horse, cow etc. Cow was most important within these. Cow was given as a gift, dowry and debt. Many branches such as Gajayurved, Ashwayurved, Gawayurved were developed afterwards based on these animals.


Ayurveda in Ancient India:

In the district of Larkana in Sindh, situated at the banks of River Sindhu, hundreds of years ago civilization existed and the place was called Mohenjo- daro as it was very lonely and dangerous.

Years after the remains of that civilization got buried under tones of mud; deep inside the ground the historical department excavated this district very systematically. The remains of the things used then made evident that Sindhughati was very much developed and the rules of treatment/ therapies were followed in each work. Even the art and the architecture were influenced by therapies. It was revealed to the world that even ages back, during the time creation of the city local cleanliness was given utmost importance and that health therapies for the treatment of diseases existed then also.

Ancient Ayurveda from Indian earth:

The excavations of old civilizations of Mohenjo- Daro and Harappa gave a new vision to history and like literature became one of the ways to acquire knowledge about the history of ayurveda.

Tracing the facts the Bhattigarh- Nalanda (Bihar, India) was searched, which was found in Vishwavidyalaya area and it is believed that the ras- shala related work was carried out here.

Aarogya vihaar :

 The excavation of Kumarahaar in Patliputra (Patna) district an 'Arogya Vihaar' was discovered and this disclosed the fact that in olden times also there were inside places where patients were kept for treatment. All these evident facts indicate that even before five thousand years Indians were aware of therapies, treatment and hospitality for diseased and needy.

At Mohenjo- Daro the black stone architecture science was evidently influenced by the health science. The examination by Dr. Hameed of the black colored stone founded at the excavation site revealed that it was a Shilajeet, which comes form the mountain areas and is useful for urine diseases. Research proves that all the novels of ayurveda have the mention of Shilajeet Rasayana.

Mrugashrunga (Barks of deer):

 It is believed that the barks of deer found during excavation were used as medicine in the ancient times. The Athrva Veda also states that the deer bark is a curative for hereditary diseases. 
The barks can also be used for clearing cough (kapha) from the body after it accumulates inside the body.

In today's world the deer bark is saleable as a medicine at very high price and thus it is surprising that year back with negligible development as compared to today. The people knew the medication for rare diseases.

Khilaune (Games) Kashyapsanhita and Charaksanhita give the description of toys and games made of metal and clay that have varied shapes of animals for developing children's humor and intellect.

It is proved from various things like Shilajeet, Harinashrunga etc. discovered from the excavation that Indian Bhaishaj Vidnyan was very much developed at ancient times.



Ancient India's Relation to other countries:

Hipocretis & Pathagoras have admitted the indirect influence of India on treatment methods in their countries. Being the most ancient culture India was more developed than any other culture. Even the history of Misra, Aseena, Bebilonia, Mesopotamia, Cheen etc. and India have some similarities, which prove communication between these countries was possible and hence the knowledge of medication, cure, therapies etc. was transferred from one place to another.


Original Scriptures:


Charaka Samhita

Of all the treaties available for ayurveda, Charaka Samhita is the best even today. It encompasses the details about the precious principles (elements) about Ayurvedic therapeutics i.e. Chikitsa-Vidnyan and is the only work, which covers Ayurveda comprehensively. Charaksamhita also has the aggregation of Sankya, Yoga, Nyay, Vaisheshik, Vedanta and Mimansa given in the form of verses.

Study of the book not only makes one aware of the ayurvedic facts but make masters of those topics and subjects. There are plenty of novels written that give detail explanation of each Soorta.

Regarding this fact only, it was said by Maharshikalpa Kaviraj Gangadharji Sen at the beginning lines of 'Jalpakalpatary' (Tika on Charaka Samhita) that " CharakaSamhita is the tree, which contains branches of all sciences".

Rachayita (Writer)

The writer of the book, chapter or topic can be seen, written on the front, first and all pages of this book.

Brahma taught ayurveda to prajapati, The knowledge of life was taught to Ashwinikumar from Prajapati, form Ashwinkumar to indra and from Indra to bhardwaj. Bhardwaj lived a long, happy and healthy life with the help of Ayurveda and he also spread this knowledge to other sages (Rishi).

After Bhardwaj, Punarvasu Atreya taught Ayurveda to his six Shishyas (students) named Agnivesha, Bhed, Jatukarna, Parashra, Harita and Ksharapani. In these six Shishyas First of all the most brilliant Agnivesha created (prepared) one Sanhita.

In each chapter of charaksanhita, it is written at the end that Chank modified the Agnivesh Tantra and so it was named as Charak Sanhita. It is given in CharakSanhita that the original scriptures of chapter 12 and17 were not available at the time of creation, so Drudhabla completed those chapters afterwards.

Information about the five ayurvedic scholars Acharya named Bharadwaj, Atreya, Agnivesha, Charak and Drudhabad who were related to Sanhita reveals many unsolved queries about the transfer of ayurveda to Misra, Cheen and other developed countries.

Sushruta Samhita

While the King of Kashi, Divodas Dhanwantrai was spending his retired life (Van Prasthashrama) a lot of sages came to him to talk about Shastra. Aupadhenav, Vaitarar, Aurabhra, Paushkalavat, Karavirya, Gaupurarakshit, Sushrut etc.. All these saints believed that they were entrapped by sadness due to the diseases that they were suffering from. Hence to conquer against their sorrows and to help themselves and make life better they wanted to learn Ayurveda from the King of Kashi. Thereby all these saints became the king's shishya (students) for ayurveda. Knowing the misery and plight of the saints Dhanwantrai happily taught them and advised them.

Ayurveda is a part of Atharvaveda.

Before evolution of this Srishti, Brahma created Brahmasanhita (1 lakh shloka, 1000 chapters).

Keeping in mind the short life span of persons, Ayurveda was divided into eight branches, namely:
• Shalya

• Shalakya

• Kay Chikitsa

• Bhootvidya

• Kaumarbhrutya

• Agadatantra

• Rosayantantra

• Vajikarantantra

As per the request of the students Dhanwantari described Surgery (Shalya) related to ayurveda. He told them that Ayurveda is meant for purposes:

1) Rescue from disease

2) To maintain good health –

The meaning of Ayurveda according to Dhanwantari is:

1) By which liveliness is present.

2) By which one can get long life (Ayu). 

3) By which one can get knowledge of life. 

4) It generates attitude to think on Ayu (life).

Also that this Shastra is constant, persistent, holy, full of happiness, increases life and activities.


The difference between Susrutsanhita and Charaksanhita is that in place of Atreya there the name of Dhanwantari exists.

Current status of Ayurveda: 

According to some sources Up to 80% of people in India used to use some form of traditional medicines, a category which includes Ayurveda.

In 1970, the Indian Medical Central Council Act which aims to standardize qualifications for ayurveda and provide accredited institutions for its study and research was passed by the Parliament of India. In India, over 100 colleges offer degrees in traditional ayurvedic medicine. The Indian government supports research and teaching in ayurveda through many channels at both the national and state levels, and helps institutionalize traditional medicine so that it can be studied in major towns and cities. The state-sponsored Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) has been set up to research the subject. To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, the Government of India, in 2001, set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as repository of 1200 formulations of various systems of Indian medicine, such as ayurveda, unani and siddha. The library also has 50 traditional ayurveda books digitized and available online.

Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) a statutory body established in 1971, under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, monitors higher education in ayurveda. Many clinics in urban and rural areas are run by professionals who qualify from these institutes.


Sri Lanka

The Sri Lankan tradition of Ayurveda is very similar to the Indian tradition. Practitioners of Ayurveda in Sri Lanka refer to texts on the subject written in Sanskrit, which are common to both countries. However, they do differ in some aspects, particularly in the herbs used.
The Sri Lankan government has established a Ministry of Indigenous Medicine (established in 1980) to revive and regulate the practice within the country The Institute of Indigenous Medicine (affiliated to the University of Colombo currently offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and MD degrees in the practice of Ayurveda Medicine and Surgery, and similar degrees in unani medicine. 
There are currently 62 Ayurvedic Hospitals and 208 central dispensaries in the public system, and they served almost 3 million people (approximately 11% of Sri Lanka's total population) in 2010. In total there are currently approximately 20,000 registered practitioners of Ayurveda in the country. 
Many Sri Lankan hotels and resorts offer Ayurveda themed packages, where guests are treated to a wide array of Ayurveda treatments during their stay.

Outside South Asia

Due to different laws and medical regulations in the rest of the world, the unregulated practice and commercialization of ayurvedic medicine has raised ethical and legal issues; in some cases, this damages the reputation of ayurvedic medicine outside India.

There are three Pub Med-indexed journals focusing on Ayurveda, the Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine (JAIM), Ancient Science of Life (ASL) and AYU.


Scientific evidence


In studies in mice, the leaves of Terminalia arjuna have been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

 As a traditional medicine, many ayurveda products have not been tested in rigorous scientific studies and clinical trials. In India, research in ayurveda is largely undertaken by the statutory body of the Central Government, the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes. A systematic review of ayurveda treatments for rheumatoid arthritis concluded that there was insufficient evidence, as most of the trials were not done properly, and the one high-quality trial showed no benefits. A review of ayurveda and cardiovascular disease concluded that the evidence for ayurveda was not convincing, though some herbs seemed promising. 
Two varieties of Salvia have been tested in small trials; one trial provided evidence that Salvia lavandulifolia (Spanish sage) may improve word recall in young adults, and another provided evidence that Salvia officinalis (Common sage) may improve symptoms in Alzheimer's patients. Many plants used as rasayana (rejuvenation) medications are potent antioxidants. Neem appears to have beneficial pharmacological properties.


Ayurveda describes methods and procedure that counteracts with the toxic elements of body in the way of Panchkarma as described under:

If toxins in the body are abundant, then a cleansing process known as panchakarma is recommended to purge these unwanted toxins. This five fold purification therapy is a classical form of treatment in ayurveda.

These specialized procedures consist of the following:

Therapeutic vomiting or emesis (Vaman)

Purgation (Virechan)

Enema (Basti)

Elimination of toxins through the nose (Nasya)

Blood letting or detoxification of the blood (Rakta moksha)